The biopila is a bioremediation technique of land basing on the ability of indigenous soil microorganisms to degrade certain types of contaminant under defined environmental conditions.
In biopile the soil to be reclaimed is divided into heap, inside of which are introduced, using an appropriate networks of pipes, air, nutrients (nitrates, phosphates) and water, so as to optimize the conditions of development and activities of the bacterial flora implementing aerobic degradation of pollutant.
Aerobic activity of microorganisms is stimulated through aeration and addition of nutrients, minerals and water, thus degrading the adsorbed products from the ground.
This remediation technique, therefore, is based on the stimulation of the growth and multiplication of aerobic bacteria through the use of oxygen, where the air is circulated into the ground through pipes with extraction / injection techniques.
In the removal of petroleum contaminants, the lighter compounds tend to be removed by volatilization during the aeration of the land, while the other components are removed by biodegradation (in the case the presence of volatile components is high it may be necessary to provide a treatment plant of the gaseous emissions such as a SVE).